Friday, March 23, 2012

Designing a Career in Biomedical Engineering

What kind of career do you imagine for yourself? Doctor? Lawyer? Scientist? Engineer? Teacher? CEO? Manager? Salesperson? A university degree in biomedical engineering will prepare you for all of these professions and more. Biomedical engineers use their expertise in biology, medicine, physics, mathematics, engineering science and communication to make the world a healthier place. The challenges created by the diversity and complexity of living systems require creative, knowledgeable, and imaginative people working in teams of physicians, scientists, engineers, and even business folk to monitor, restore and enhance normal body function. The biomedical engineer is ideally trained to work at the intersection of science, medicine and mathematics to solve biological and medical problems.

Further reading:::

Radiology Galleries

case 1::75 year-old lady had six years previously undergone a mastectomy for a Grade 3, node positive breast carcinoma. She represented generally unwell with increasing back pain. Serological investigation showed her to be hypercalcaemic. This plain pelvic x-ray shows multiple osteolytic bone metastases. Despite treatment with a bisphosphonate she died two months later.
case2 : 82 year-old man presented to his general practitioner with increasing abdominal distension and vomiting of undigested. He had suffered with postprandial epigastric pain for a number of years but had never sought medical advice. A barium meal was arranged. This showed the stomach to grossly distended with a large food residue. The appearances were those of pyloric stenosis which was confirmed with an upper GI endoscopy. The underlying pathology was peptic ulcer disease. A partial gastrectomy with a Polya reconstruction was performed.
some similar cases with radiological galery follow it at the below link :::

Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment with Ultrasonography

Musculoskeletal ultrasound is a rapidly growing imaging modality used for the  investigation and management of musculoskeletal disorders. The first report of musculoskeletal ultrasonography was published in 1958 by K. T. Dussik who measured the acoustic attenuation of articular and periarticular tissues including skin, adipose tissue, muscle, tendon, articular capsule, articular cartilage and bone (Dussik et al., 1958). It was first used in rheumatoid arthritis by Cooperberg in 1978 for the assessment of synovitis in the knee. (Cooperberg et al., 1978). De Flaviis made the first report of ultrasonography in the hand in rheumatoid arthritis in 1988, describing synovitis, tenosynovitis, and erosions (De Flaviis et al., 1988).The first application of power Doppler in demonstrating soft tissue hyperaemia in musculoskeletal disease was reported in 1994 by J. S. Newman (Newman et al., 1994). Since, power Doppler has started to replace gray-scale ultrasonography as an indicator of inflammatory joint disease. Ultrasonography has a number of advantages, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints in a short period of time. Thanks to smaller high-frequency transducers that were better suited for superficial structures such as the small joints, many reports and studies have been published. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of ultrasonography pathologies.

further reading:::

want to know more on ultrasound signal processing...

Ultrasound is one of the most widely used modalities in medical imaging.Ultrasound imaging is regularly
used in cardiology,obstetrics, gynecology, abdominal imaging, etc. Its popularity arises from the fact that
it provides high-resolution images without the use of ionizing radiation.It is also mostly non-invasive, although an invasive technique like intra-vascular imaging is also possible. Non-diagnostic use of ultrasound is finding increased use in clinical applications, (e.g., in guiding interventional procedures). There are also novel non-imaging uses of ultrasound like bone densitometer where the ultrasound speed difference is used to measure the depth or width of bones non-invasively.Ultrasound systems are signal processing intensive. With various imaging modalities and different processing requirements in each modality, digital signal processors (DSP) are finding increasing use in such systems. The advent of low power system-on-chip (SOC) with DSP and RISC processors is allowing OEMs to provide portable and low cost systems without compromising the image quality necessary for clinical applications. This white paper introduces ultrasound systems. The focus of this paper is on the signal processing aspects of the ultrasound system [20]. The basic concepts behind ultrasound systems are provided in Section 2. In this section, the components that a modern ultrasound system are based on are provided along with a brief description of ultrasound properties applicable to imaging. Section 3 introduces the ultrasound transducer that forms the basic ultrasound transmission and reception sensor for this imaging mode. Section 4 focuses on front-end processing with special attention to the basics of beamforming using multiple transducer elements. The most commonly used delay and sum (DAS) beamforming is also introduced in this section. Section 5 describes the mid-end processing, which is defined as any processing  that is done on each scan line during image acquisition. Section 6 describes the back-end processing of an ultrasound system, which is composed of image enhancement, noise reduction, and display functionalities. Section 7 describes the Doppler mode of operation, which provides a visual display of motion inside the body. Finally, Section 8 briefly introduces the basic concepts used for 3D/4D imaging.

for further reading ::http://www.medimaging.jp/whitepaper/750.pdf

Friday, March 16, 2012

Hospimedica - Smartphone Technology Meets Personalized Medicine

An innovative smartphone electrocardiogram (ECG) system provides physicians and patients with hospital-quality heart rhythm monitoring outside of the hospital setting. 

The CardioDefender Diagnostic System delivers mobile heart monitoring and automated reporting by combining patented analytical smartphone software with a Bluetooth device and electrodes, enabling the smartphone to perform as a mobile ECG. 
continue reading on :::
Hospimedica - Smartphone Technology Meets Personalized Medicine

Monday, March 12, 2012


to get the relevant material related to our field of research

As in Biomedical field research is an essential part and it comes as we join the Postgraduate program of this field. So it becomes essential that one must learn to read the research papers , to find these research papers we are moreover confused most of those times that where to search and how to get the relevant material related to our field of research
Here I will tell you that there is a software called PUBLITOR with which you can easily download as well as find the research papers of pubmed & pubmed central directly from your desktop with a active  internet connection

New Algorithm for Quantification of High Frequency and Non-deterministic events of Heart

Background: Heart signals represent an important way to evaluate cardiovascular function and often what is desired is to quantify the level of some signal of interest against the louder backdrop of the beating of the heart itself. An example of this type of application is thequantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients.
Methods: An algorithm is presented for the quantification of high-frequency, non-deterministicevents such as cavitation from recorded signals. A closed-form mathematical analysis of the algorithm investigates its capabilities. The algorithm is implemented on real heart signals to investigate usability and implementation issues. Improvements are suggested to the base algorithm including aligning heart sounds, and the implementation of the Short-Time Fourier Transform to study the time evolution of the energy in the signal. Results: The improvements result in better heart beat alignment and better detection and measurement of the random events in the heart signals, so that they may provide a method to quantify non-deterministic events in heart signals. The use of the Short-Time Fourier Transform allows the examination of the random events in both time and frequency allowing for further investigation and interpretation of the signal. Conclusions: The presented algorithm does allow for the quantification of non-deterministic events but proper care in signal acquisition and processing must be taken to obtain meaningful results.
link :: full pdf

Bone Healing monitored by Implanted sensors

Biomedical engineers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have created an implantable sensor that can be placed in the site of recent orthopaedic surgery to transfer data about how the body is healing. The sensor could provide a more accurate, cost effective and less invasive way to monitor and diagnose the body post-surgery.
The current way of monitoring a patient’s recovery after an orthopaedic procedure relies on X-rays and MRIs. These new sensors could give surgeons detailed, real-time information from the actual surgery site, which could help to better understand potential complications.
The sensors are four millimetres in diameter and 500 microns thick. They look like small coils of wire and are attached to commonly-used musculoskeletalimplants such as rods, plates or prostheses. Once implanted, the sensor can monitor and transmit data about the load, strain, pressure, or temperature of the healing surgery site. The sensor is scalable, tunable, and easy to configure so that it may be incorporated into many different types of implantable orthopaedic devices. They don’t need a battery: instead, they are powered by an external device used to capture the data.
The sensors work by measuring internal displacement. This internal displacement can be made sensitive to force, pressure or temperature depending on how the sensors are tuned. Theoretically a number of different sensors tuned for different measurements could be implanted.
Eric Ledet, assistant professor in the department of Biomedical Engineering at Rensselaer, told Wired.co.uk that the physics behind the sensor is similar to a tuning fork. With a tuning fork, you add mechanical energy by banging it against something. It then resonates at a characteristic frequency, which we hear as a sound.
“Our sensors are also resonators, but they are energised by radio frequencyenergy. When you subject them to a radio frequency field using an antenna, they resonate at a characteristic frequency. That resonant frequency is modulated by force or pressure or temperature. So we add radio frequency energy to the sensor, allow it to resonate, then we “listen” to its resonant frequency with an antenna. Passive resonator sensors are not new, but ours have no electrical connections which makes them very simple and very robust.”
The device they use to “listen” to the resonance is an “off-the-shelf network analyser (made by Agilent) with some custom electronics”. The system created the radio frequency field to energise the sensors and then also listens for the resonant frequency.
The team has filed for patent protection for the new sensor. They currently make each one by hand and are investigating methods for mass production.
You can find out more about the project on Ledet’s page.


Sunday, March 11, 2012

the implantable bioartificial kidney

improving Dialysis Patients' Quality of Life with Miniature Artificial Kidney
Grant Number - 1R01EB008049
Principal Investigator
Shuvo Roy, Ph.D.
Cleveland Clinic
Lerner College of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH
Renal assist device made from silicon nanoporous membranes.
Nearly half a million people in the United States suffer from end-state renal disease (ESRD), and the incidence rate of this disease has been steadily increasing for over 25 years. Kidney transplantation provides the best option for ESRD patients, but a shortage of donors means that most patients never make it to the top of a waiting list. The alternative is dialysis, which is not only expensive and inconvenient for patients, but also far less effective.
An interdisciplinary group of researchers from a number of academic institutions and companies has envisioned a way to improve management of ESRD by developing an implantable, self-regulating, bioartificial device capable of filtering toxins from the blood, as well as replacing the endocrine and metabolic functions of the kidney. Current efforts in the design of this two-chamber renal device focus on carefully tailoring the pores of the filtration membrane that can be driven by a patient's normal blood flow. The next step will be the development of a miniaturized cell bioreactor to carry out the other functions of the device. The team hopes to have a product ready for testing in humans within the next 10 years.
Note on the Implantable Bioartificial Kidney Project:
The bioartificial kidney project as a whole is led by Shuvo Roy, PhD, associate professor, UCSF Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and director of the UCSF Biomedical Microdevices Laboratory. Dr. Roy also leds the membrane research component of the work.   
Phase 1 of the comprehensive project has been funded by a $3.2 M Quantum Grant from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) to assess feasibility and identify best approaches.  As of September 2010, results have demonstrated proof of concept for the essential components of the device, including high performance membranes for hemofiltration, surface coatings for enhanced biocompatibility, and cell isolation, propagation and preservation techniques for bioreactor development, and efficacy in animals.   See the initial Phase 1 Quantum Grant summary:http://www.nibib.nih.gov/Research/QuantumGrants/Roy
Phase 2 of the project, will integrate the Phase 1 successes made possible by the Quantum Grant by continuing engineering and development to show additional efficacy of the device in animals and functionality in end stage renal disease patients.

Biomedical Engineering- Ignored Profession in India

PREVIOUSLY it was considered that biomedical engineering is limited to the field of investigations and to confirming the diagnosis. But according to new research and development, it is now playing a vital role in the mode of treatment. It has completely modified the concept of treatment of many conditions from conventional to modern scientific techniques.
Therefore, biomedical engineering has proved beneficial for healthcare systems not only for investigations but also for treatment. Developed countries are making the best use of their biomedical engineers.
In India, biomedical engineering was introduced in 1975 in IIT, Delhi as  a Doctoral program. BiomedicalUndergraduate programs are now in more than 70-80 colleges in India. Although it has been more than 35 years, yet, unfortunately, it has not been given much importance.
Medical doctors are said to be angels by patients as they are bound to save human life. For understanding the full cycle of human body, diseases and symptoms, they were sent to government hospitals. It is compulsory to work for one year under a professor before one is awarded an MBBS degree with a licence to practise. But withoutmedical equipment it is difficult for patients to survive in a critical condition
Biomedical engineers may also need to require practical and technical training for better understanding of the principles of medical equipment like MBBS doctors need to understand patients’ needs.
Almost every year hundreds of students are graduating in biomedical engineering but because of unavailability of any platform, they are moving to administrative or other fields. Neither there are positions in government-run hospitals nor is there any government policy for biomedical engineers.
Now is the time to take immediate measures to have the best outcome from biomedical engineering. The public health sector is spending millions on machines used for different purposes. These machines require good maintenance for proper working which cannot be provided by anyone but biomedical engineers. That is the reason that many of our institutes have the most expensive machines but they are not in working condition.
Many biomedical engineers are working in hospitals but they are equivalent to diploma holders or lower technical staff. Some may think that biomedical engineers only install, adjust, maintain, and/or repair biomedical equipment. But this is a wrong perception. These engineers can guide hospital administrators on the planning, procurement and use of medical equipment, arrange and supervise research concerning behavioral, biological, psychological, or other life systems, conduct research with scientists, chemists and medical scientists on engineering of the biological systems of humans and animals.
They can figure out the safety, efficiency and effectiveness of biomedical equipment. Some may also teach, write, consult, and/or manage. Even after completing the graduation from recognised engineering universities, they are considered simple technicians but not engineers which is unfair.
If we talk about pay scale, the condition is even worse. Fresh graduates start their job with Rs10,000 to Rs12,000 a month which is the pay of a non-degree person.
The authorities concerned should take notice of this important issue. Biomedical engineering is becoming the nerve of the healthcare system worldwide. We have the talent. What we need is to polish our engineers by providing them a platform to work and give them due recognition in our healthcare system, which they truly deserve
courtesy :: hospimedica

Below is what I got from a blog which i was reading recently regarding the stature of biomedical Engineering in USA. Soon Biomedical Engineering would be recognized in India on the same lines. I hope for this to happen very soon in near future

 "" So what’s biomedical engineering anyway? And how much is a biomedical engineering salary? Are Bio Medical schools hard to get into? People in this field are responsible for creating new inventions that those in medicine can implement to assist the human body work better and overcome illness, injury or other issues. This can include a host of various issues ranging from genetic engineering to biomedical mechanical, tissue or neural engineering as well. Of course, this may also be as simple as creating new drugs via pharmaceutical engineering. So in answering what’s biomedical engineering, 1 should ask more particularly about a specific aspect in the field so that it’s narrowed down to get a great idea.
Of course, specific cases may be helpful as well. Biomedical engineers have invented incredible tools that are now utilized in medicine and continue to truly earn every penny of their Biomedical engineer salary. For instance, the pacemaker was produced by biomedical engineers to assist regulate the rhythm and function of a struggling heart. Drugs like Lipitor help those struggling with high cholesterol manage their problem, while drugs like Wellbutrin cross more than into psychiatry to assist depressed people repair chemical imbalances in the brain. In contemporary occasions, biomedical engineers are creating issues that appear to step straight out of science fiction books. Advances by such engineers are starting to allow humans to interface directly with digital devices via neural engineering, opening up the possibility of mechanical eyes for those who’re blind or robotic hands for those who’ve injured their very own beyond repair.
A Biomedical engineer salary in return for the incredible devices they create may be quite respectable. On average a person in the field can expect to create about $81,000, although the spread of salaries that the majority of those in such occupations might make is quite large, stretching between $62,000 and an impressive $104,000. Those with the best paying jobs pulled in incredible salaries, many topping more than $125,000. Yet in spite of the surprisingly high incomes, relatively couple of individuals work in the field. In 2010 only about 15,000 individuals had been employed as biomedical engineers, leaving ample space for growth should employers require more labor.
What is a biomedical engineering day like? What is a biomedical engineering salary? Nicely it differs vastly from say a school nurse salary that’s for certain. Most in the field can expect to spend long hours in front of computers, attempting to design the contraptions they conceptualize in their heads. This really is often easier said than carried out, and many great suggestions never leave the drawing board simply because technology has not moved far enough to allow their creation. If development is successful in pc models, however, biomedical engineers get to begin physically constructing their items, building prototypes and experimenting with them till they either work perfectly or are abandoned in favor of other choices. While workers in the field might go via many suggestions before coming up with 1 that functions, the rewards created by such a success often make all of the work worth it.
When asking a question like what’s biomedical engineering, 1 should be ready for an extended answer. In spite of the reality that some 15,000 individuals work in the field, many of them work on significantly various field in vastly various disciplines. Yet in the end, every 1 of them is developing tools that will help humans live longer, healthier lives. And with out all of the tension they even have a tendency to make more than aHuman Resource Management Salary that is quite good indeed.""